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Tiẓri n ubelkim

Igriken d imezwura i d yegren tamiḍrant n ubelkim, ɣur-sen ameɣradyebna s tzelɣiwin fsusit ur nettwabḍay ara, turda-ya yura-tt-id Lucère di lqern amezwaru send sidna Ɛisa.

tiẓri tabekamit, tedda ɣer zdat mi bdan imussnawen qeddcen s termit di lqern XIX. S weslaḍ imussnakruraren ssawḍen ad d-afen iferdisen n yeḥriren n lgaz d tedɣar.Amedya n lemleḥ yeddsen s sin yiferdien : sodium d chlore. Azwu d tuddsa n azote d oxygène.

Tiẓri n Dalton

Di tazwara n lqern wis XIX, amussnakrura abriṭani John Dalton, inilbi n tiẓ tabelkamit tatrart, yezrew ɣef wamek i tga tuqqna-ya i wakken ad tili tuddsa takrurant. Dɣa d netta i d-yefkan turdiwin yebnan ɣef lsas n tussna. Yemla-d amek ibelkimen wa iteqqen ɣer wa s tazunt iwmi semman molécule. Amedya molécule n waman HOH, d tuddsa n yibelkimen hydrogèned oxygène. Taferka takrurant n uferdis temgaras ɣef tayeḍ s tuqqna n yibelkimen i t-iteggen.

Alugan n Avogadro

Amadeo Avogadro, amazzag n tezrawt n lgaz, yesnelfani-d deg useggas 1811 alugan yuɣen isem-is « Ma tella tazɣelt d tuẓẓma n yebliɣen n lgaz msawant, deg-sen yiwen wemḍan molécule. »

Lexsayayes n ubelkim

Seg wacḥal n leqrun-aya imassanen ur sawwḍen ad d-afen lqedd d tazit n ubelkim imi ulac ttawilat ilaqen i waya. Abelkim afsusan d win n hydrogène, akdu-ines (diamètre) 10-10 m, ma d tazit-is 1,7 10-27 kg.

Imassanen walan akken tugett n yemdanen yeεnan tazit tabelkamit d ummiden, amussnakrura abritani William Prout yefka-d asumer « iferdisen merra d tuddsa n yeblkimen n hydrogène. »

Tafelwit tawalant

Di tlemmast n lqern wis XIX aṭas yimassanen ttwalhen i cbiha d umgarad n tferka n yiferdisen. Amssnakrura arusi Mendeleïv yessumer-d tafelwit tawalant n yiferdisen, seg-s rsen iferdisen i kif kif tiferka, s yizireg d tgejdit. S userrus-a, yal aferdis yettunefk-as uṭṭun, uṭṭun abelkami, d azal n yiliktrunen yellan deg ubelkim. Yebda s 1 i hydrogène alma d 92 i uranium. Deg tfelwit-a Mendeleïv yeğğa ilmawen i yiferdisen werεad ttwassnen di lweqt-is.

Tiẓriyin tatrarin

Abelkim d iγes ideg llan inukliyen (iprutunen d initrunen) γef ay tezzin iliktrunen. Abelkim yemgarad γef wayed s wuttun-is abelkami Z d wemḍa n yinukliyen neγ amḍan n taẓit A.

1/ Tigrutin timezwura (premières découvertes)

Taggara n lqern wis XIX amussnagamaw almani Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen yufa-d azenazar X izemren ad yeflun tiferkett n weldun. Deg useggas 1881 amussnagamaw Joseph John Thomson yefka-d turda: llant tzelγiwin sεant tasmekta n trisiti d tibawt umi semman iliktrunen.

Deg useggas 1896 Henri Becquerel yufa-d akken kra n yiεeqqaren am lemleḥ n uranium d imesgalen (émetteurs) n yizenzaren ifellun tanga. Leqdic n Pierre d Marie Curie ssawḍen ad smegnen (identifier) tuddsiwin-a. Ernest Rutherford isken-d akken uranium d kra yiferdisen iẓayanen : thorium d radium d imesgalen n krad n yizenzaren isemman azenzar alpha, bêta d gamma. Deg useggas 1899, Becquerel isken-d akken tizelγiwin bêta d iliktrunen. Deg useggas 1909, Rutherford yufa-d daγen akken tizelγiwin alpha d ibelkimen n hélium. D aya i yessawden γer: abelkim d tuddsa n tzelγiwin. Ma d izenzaren gamma: d timsedwal icban izenzaren X; maca mgaraden s teγzi n temsedwal-nnsent.

2/ Abelkim n Rutherford

S tussna n tzelγiwin imassanen sawwaḍen ad issinen afekka n ubelkim. Abelkim d abraḥ d ilem. Deg wul n webraḥ-a yella yiγes, akdu-ines 1/10000 γef ukdu n ubelkim. Rutherford isken-d akken tugett n taẓit n ubelkim tezga deg yiγes, iliktrunen tezzin i yiγes-a. Amḍan n yilikrtunen yemsawa d yiprutunen isεan tasmekta n trisiti tufrirt (positifs) n yiγes.

3/Abelkim n Bohr

I wakken ad yessefhem tafekka n ubelkim, amussnagamaw adanmarki Niels Bohr, yefka-d deg useggas 1913 tiẓri yuγen isem-is, yebnan γef tfekka n Rutherford: iliktrunen zgan deg ussuyen (couches), neγ aswir akanti, beεden s waṭas γef yiγes.

Amḍan n yiliktrunen yemsawa d wuṭṭun abelkami n ubelkim. Amedya abelkim n hydrogène ɣur-s yiwen n yiliktrun, ma d hélium ɣur-s sin; ma d uranium ɣur-s 92. Abelkim yezmer ad yesεu alma d sebεa n wusuyen, deg yal usu zemren ad ilin iliktrunrn. Usu wis sebεa yemmed ma yella d agmawi (naturel). Usu aneggaru neγ usu n valence i d ssebba n tferka tikrunanin n yiferdisen. Usu aneggar n lgizan udrisen ur nelli d ilem am hélium, néon, argon, krypton, xénon d radon, yeččur, ɣef waya lgizan-a ur ttwaqqanen ara γer yibelkimen: qqaren-asen daγen lgizan yegnen. Ma d usu n kra n yiferdisen nniden am lithium, sodium d potasium, deg-s yiwen yiliktrun kan, sehlen i tuqqna γer yibelkimen nniden ara d-yefken iliktrunen i ten-ixusen i tummda.

Tizri takantit

Ma nefka i ubelkim azuren (énergie), abelkim-a yetteqliliḥ (excité) yettak-d tafat. Amedya lgaz n hydrogène ma tella tuẓẓma-ines fessuset nerna-yas trisiti, ad nwali tafat d tazeggaγt teffeγ-d.

Tiẓri n Bohr tessaweḍ imssnagamawen ad ktilen teγzi n temsedwal (onde). Ma yella iliktrunen tezzin i yiγes s teγzi iressan, abelkim ur d-yettak ara azuren. Ma yili ubelkim yeqlaleh, aliktrun yewwden γer wusu ibeεden i yiγes, yuγal-d γer wusu-ines akessar yettak-d tasmekta n wazuren. Lgizan udrisen ttakken-d azuren X ma yella qlalhen.

Tasengama tabelkamit

Deg useggas 1919 Rutherford yerna i lgaz azote tizelγiwin alpha. Kra n tzelγiwin alpha kkatent iγes n azote, d oxygène i d-yeffγen s tberrawt-a (bombardement).

Deg useggas 1932, James Chadwick yufa-d tazelγa zdaxel n yiγes isem-is anitrun. Iγes n ubelkim isem-is aniklun (anitrun + aprtun). Deg ubelkim azal yiliktrunen yemsawa d iprutunen. Ayen i d-yufa akka yessefham-d tumant (phénomène) n yizutupen (les isotopes), ibelkimen isεan yiwen wemdan n yiprutunen, maca amdan yinitrunen yemxalaf, amedya chlore llan sin yiferdisen afsusan 35Cl d uzayan 37Cl.

Tasedmert tabelkamit

Tarmit n yimussnagamawen Fréderic d Irène Joliot Curie γer tazwara yiseggasen 1930, tzskzn-d akken ibelkimen irekden zemren ad d-fken ticεal s tberrawt tazelγant neγ tazenẓart.

Deg useggas 1932, imussnagamawen John D. Cockcroft d Ernest T.S. Walton suffγen-d tizdit (faisceau) n yiprutunen.

Sxedmen tizelγiwin-a d taberrawt i lithium (tanicca). Deg tertimt-a 7Li yuγal d sin yiγsan n hélium:7Li+1H=4He+4He

Imussnagamawen weznen

7Li=7,018242 u
1H =1,008137 u
4He=4,003910 u
Tazit taγrudt n yibelkimen n tazwara =8,026379u
Tazit tγrudt n yibelkimen n taggara=8,007820u
amgarad i d-yeffγen d azal 0,018559u

Ayen ixusen akka, d azuren i d-yeffγen mi d-tella tasedmert takrurant.
llan sin yiskaren ibelkamen izemren ad d-yefken azuren: bettu n yiγes azayan ad yuγal d iγsan ifsusen.

Tizdit tazγelbelkamit (thérmonucléaire), tizdit n sin yiγsan ifsusen s tezγelt tunnigt i tuffγa yiγes azayan. Deg useggas 1934, Enrico Fermi ixdem beṭṭu amenzu.

Ma d tizdit tazγelbelkamit tettili deg yitran, d nettat i d ssebba n wezγal d tafat-nnsen, tettili daγen deg lbumba n hydrogène.

Tizelγiwin tiferdisin

Tiẓri tabelkamit tatarart la d-teqqar « sdaxel yiγsan llan initrunen d yiprutunen, ttwaqqnen s tezmert. Ma yewwet wazuren iγes-a teffγent-d tzelγiwin d timaynutin am méson neγ muon (aseggas 1937), hardon neγ hypron, baryon, lepton, tugett-nnsent teddrent 10-7 n tasint. »

Deg useggas 1963 imassanen Murray Gell-Mann d George Zweig, urden-d « tizelγiwin les hardons d tuddsa n waṭas n tzelγiwin umi semman quarks. »

Youcef AIT IGHIL

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